“Time is the fire we burn in.” And even though we could be unable to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have made an effort to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows to your crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance is a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The inner environment of Cryogenic storage Dewar is actually a world apart, a reminder of the ultimate heat-death that has to befall our universe inside the eons ahead.
For those who attempt to discover truths concerning the workings of your cell, holding back the floodgates of your time is an issue of significant proportions. Scientists are usually enthusiastic about very specific cell properties that transpire at critical junctions inside the lifetime of a cell. Holding these processes from increasing while their properties can be exploited is similar to the problem of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been utilized as one solution to the problem of the slow burn. By reducing the temperatures of samples for the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature from which all metabolic activity comes to a halt, scientists are able to seclude moments over time, returning over and over to look into that instant in the past.
Not surprisingly, cryogenics has become an essential industry which makes customized products for almost every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the current market in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, storage containers, and dewars in every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. By using these numerous types of products from which to choose understanding of those are most efficient may elude the average consumer. In order to provide a summary of the main producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will be profiled on this page.
Ultra-low lab freezers are one of those particular stuff that many people never think about until they quit working. Designed to run for many years without interruption in service, lab freezers would be the quiet sentinels from the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch over the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists stay away from the idea of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they try to erase the memory during the day if it did. A career’s worth of samples could be lost in a single afternoon– numerous years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on to the floor. Although this type of scenario looms ominously within the periphery for each researcher’s consciousness, not many are prepared for the entire day when it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers took great pains to make sure that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that usually are meant to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies will be the only company that utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle in its refrigerators. While the gas industry has used this system for a long time, MMR Technologies was the initial company to patent the technology and adapt it for really small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
The way the Kleemenko cycle works is a blend of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and is also permitted to expand by way of a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, along with the cool gas passes support the temperature exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. A number of liquid-vapor separators might be incorporated in the cycle to ensure the increase of the liquid can be used to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is designed for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and body parts. The system allows the scientist to warm and cool samples uniformly without shocking them, and also since it offers an inside power source it can be used for your transportation of samples from storage facility to research laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the need for controlled temperature ramping.
“As being a user you need to be aware of minimum temperature and the way it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling makes sure that uniform temperatures have been maintained through the entire cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, and that is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are designed for biological samples at temperatures down to -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages could be preserved for long periods. Locking lids are supplied as a way to protect samples from accidental exposure to ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are useful for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits most of its ultralow freezing capabilities to its heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The temperature-conducting quality with this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to operate longer and colder than would otherwise be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer is capable of holding samples below the crystallization point.
In line with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also relies on a special mix of azeotropic gases which can be non-flammable and enable on-site recycling. Moreover, a built in timer cycles the low stage compressor every round the clock, turning them back so that the capillary tubing will be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. features a long tradition of creating ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. The truth is, with four decades of experience under its belt, So-Low is among the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the commercial. As soon as the Montreal Protocol started the phase out of CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was the first to use Dupont Suva 95, the newest CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler and with less pressure than CFCs. As well as its investigation of eco-friendly refrigerants, So-Low has additionally developed a revolutionary compressor that is certainly designed just for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens down to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units rather than the typical cylindrical containers. All these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, and a storage system adjusts to support a range of tube sizes. Forma offers a patented double door unit that separates lasting from everyday storage.
Revco is one of the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers exceeding 50 years of experience in the business. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as low as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be bought in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions on the internal and external environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. Furthermore, it has a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil from the evaporating coils.
Sanyo is manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers more than 20 years, starting with its production of the very first -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the creation of the initial -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and additional demonstrated its position by becoming the very first manufacturer to offer a complete range of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of the largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers available today. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are designed for utilization in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The word dewar, originally applied to double walled glass vacuum flasks, is currently put on a wide array of insulated vessels intended for maintenance of samples in liquid nitrogen. Based on their size, dewars usually rest on to the ground or sit on tabletops where samples can easily be accessed. Due to quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures provided that 1 year without being regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The normal thermal wall consists of an aluminum or steel sandwich filled with polyurethane. The size and configuration of dewars vary to such an extent that numerous companies build custom dewars to buy. A number of these companies as well as their merchandise is reviewed within the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE has created laboratory freezers for a wide variety of applications. Needless to say, animal breeders are just a small number of its customers. Blood and cell storage as well as organ shipment are an equally large a part of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the fastest-growing section of the market for the company’s products.
MVE was the 1st company to formulate biological freezers competent at maintaining a -190°C environment for the full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since this time MVE has released the full brand of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are designed for handling as much as 36,000 vials at temperatures only -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are suitable for cells that may be stored at -125°C but will become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers will also be a good choice for storing hazardous materials which may cross-communicate in a liquid medium, including contaminated-blood bags that are prone to break open.
Quantum Technology is a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the usa and Germany. Its product line includes everything from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
In accordance with Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, a great way his company has been able to remain competitive is as simple as offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling point of Quantum’s refrigeration systems is that they may be custom-designed.
One of Quantum Technology’s most favored products is a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is merely $4 or $5 per liter, in lots of countries outside of America and Europe, the fee for purchasing helium is a concern of concern. That is probably the explanations why Quantum Technology makes a competent two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator wherein the helium is retained from the system. The helium from this refrigerator is reliquified for use time and again.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, supplies a Thermo-Flask type of goods that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different models are offered with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and all these models is offered by using a 24-month warranty. Other special attributes of the Thermo-Flask brand of products include vented lids in order to avoid pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to deliver coolant retention for samples kept in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, which are distributed by several companies throughout america. The Bio-Cane systems are available in five sizes and present features including super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be bought in four sizes and possess capacities as high as 6,000 vials. As well as several of the standard features within the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks with a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, plus an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates contact with liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes a number of traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are produced from borosilicate glass paid by a protective mesh, and each and every wide-mouth model features a vented polyethylene stopper to lessen evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can be jacketed in aluminum casing for extra safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are best for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times greater than two weeks. Every one of these units come designed with the lowest-evaporation stopper, a totally shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Selections for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International makes the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars that enable the researcher to store large quantities of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Each of these units is complemented by its unique inventory control system, which is designed to maximize the quantity of vials that can be safely arranged in to a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials may be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are one of the mostly used and least considered implements in the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out a day. Then its time to travel shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is often guided by three primary issues, the 1st that concerns the challenge of whether or not they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials suggest that material is trapped inside the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents of the internally threaded sort argue that externally threaded vials tend to be more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although reports have been conducted in an attempt to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, as well as the debate continues.
Another consideration which comes under consideration when buying cryogenic tubes will be the material that they may be constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, more durable than glass, they be more difficult to warm which may negatively modify the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes can be contaminated with releasing fluids in the molding process. However, releasing fluids can be removed with all the care, and several brands like Axygen are looking at new polished molds which do not require using releasing fluids. Glass, however, warms rapidly but is also subject to fracture as a result of microchannels which may form within the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, or even violent explosions. Plastic vials can also be vulnerable to nitrogen penetration but the potential of explosion is not really as great.
Gasketing has additionally been a concern of some contention in this industry. Many cryovials are equipped with a washer that keeps the internal pressure in the vial from expelling the tube’s contents after it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid increase of gas in the tube is sufficient to force cells and fluid from the lids of numerous non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is usually preferred because the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber is also used, it features a tendency to lose its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a problem which was demonstrated if the “O” rings around the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, offers a large collection of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes that you can use at temperatures as little as -190°C. Designed for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come equipped with attached leak proof caps that comprise of a dual lip plus a silicon washer. A special ridge on each cap makes handling easier, adding to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts in conjunction with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® type of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, along with other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be found in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and three.5 ml sizes and come in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also has a wide range of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Such as polypropylene tubes, which is often used with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and so are pressure tested in a vacuum chamber to guarantee the reliability of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has created a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, for use in lipid fractionation studies. It is actually a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube with an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. One of many outstanding attributes of this tube is it is entirely transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a selection of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities which can be silicone gasketed and guaranteed for usage within a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and therefore are certified being sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, while the System 100 vials are sure to be leakproof inside a microcentrifuge around 8,000 g and during shipment and transport. However, the corporation warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase may lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have provided CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for nearly every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it provides developed a substantial catalog of items for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be purchased in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is made from Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that could be hermetically sealed. These are generally suitable for your preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like every one of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials which can be constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction ensures they are exceptionally durable, and they could be flame sealed or stored by using a wide selection of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes a series of polypropylene vials that are equipped for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come designed with various features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and simple-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features are available with selected styles. Each one of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures which can be developed with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene with no mineral fillers or chemical toxins. Foreign substances are added only at the request of the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions including iron, chromium, or nickel that are typical constituents of dyes. All the company’s vials is designed to snap closed in a locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports make the insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system incorporates a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees that the microtube is aligned from the centrifuge rotor to become re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. has a extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes which are suitable for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that can come in a big selection of sizes, shapes, and colours. The consumer has the choice of choosing from a number of externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps which may be colored for identification. All of Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, and also the polypropylene material that they can be constructed allows them to endure subfreezing temperatures in addition to temperatures and pressures within an autoclave. One of several areas that Sarstedt has paid particular awareness of in developing its line of products is the necessity for cryogenic vials that include reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and can be bought in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes may be subjected to a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and all of its O-ring sealed tubes continues to be sterilized.
Storage inventory systems really are a critical component of any long term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they might undergo changes that make them hard to keep trace. Labels can become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes might be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. One of the most popular options for containing samples is definitely the canister and cane. By using this technique, some vials are enclosed in just a long aluminum shaft which is submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be simply manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage that could occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer system is usually preferred. Although drawer systems usually expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility of your system reduces exposure time to ambient temperatures contributing to less evaporation from your freezer, as well as reduces the researcher’s contact with potentially harmful cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are meant to optimize the volume of storage space afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The standard inventory configuration is a cardboard or stainless steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems allow the user to arrange up to 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International focuses on making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Intended for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems are available in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colors to match virtually any freezer. Clear lids allow contents to be viewed without opening the containers, and they may be adjusted in certain models to allow for tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that include storage racks for holding up to 267 microtubes. These drawers may be installed in virtually any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise a number of plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are generally keyed in order to avoid misalignment and give temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide steel retainer systems suitable for all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They offer vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for convenient retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes for an increasing number of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, Cryogenic ISO Tank Container has responded with boxes and racks that happen to be constructed for numerous samples of both well plates and cryovials. They have also introduced boxes with telescoping lids as a way to satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is probably the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic packing containers. In fact, many of its merchandise is sold as standard accessories with a number of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are made from stainless-steel and may include a choice of cardboard, aluminum, or steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems are available as individual units or as complete racks for use in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
More than likely, the cryogenic products one buys today is definitely the same ones that can be used for years to come. An order made today may go on for ten years. In effect, researchers buying Gas Cylinder are not only buying products on their own, they may be buying for successors. The customer should look into what might 46dexkpky during the period of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated as a result of improper storage. A little money which was saved in the beginning by scrimping on vials or freezers may well not appear to be the best trade off when valuable samples are lost. Inspite of the safeguards built in to the majority of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on these kinds of products a high priority. Appointing a lasting position that is mainly responsible for the cryogenic safety from the laboratory’s biological collection is amongst the best ways to assure the integrity of these samples.